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您現在的位置: 山東大學歷史文化學院  /  學術資訊  /  正文

時間:2019-06-21 14:53:10  來源:   作者:魯曉寧  編輯:常海峰  瀏覽量:

6月18日下午,廣州美術學院李清泉教授做客山東大學歷史文化學院,知新樓A1017為同學們帶了一場名為“‘一堂家慶’的新意向:墓主像與唐宋墓葬風氣之變”的專題講座。講座由歷史文化學院方輝院長主持,來自學院近百名師生及部分駐濟高校和文博單位的學者聆聽了講座。

講座中,李清泉教授首先回顧中古時期墓葬墓主像裝飾傳統的演變路徑:由魏晉時期壁畫形式的墓主夫婦正面畫像,五代十國變為石雕、金銅材質的立體三維雕像。接著,他介紹了入宋以后具有墓主像裝飾的墓葬考古材料分布情況,并闡述了宿白先生引用《醉翁談錄》提出“開芳宴”的名稱來源——常指夫婦和美恩愛,考古材料中出現的“墓主夫婦對坐像”都習慣稱之為“開芳宴”。

李教授論述了宋金墓主像與墓葬裝飾的影堂化問題。他指出,墓主夫婦像與“一桌二椅”象征意義關系密切墓葬裝飾中“一桌二椅”磚雕形式在宋金依然流行,裝飾與司馬光《書儀·喪儀》所記吻合“二椅”具有喪儀與祭祀中“位”的意味,高浮雕凸出于壁面的桌椅是對靈位的強調,墓主像則是對供奉對象的確切描繪。李教授認為,這種墓葬裝飾的流行當是受到了影堂的影響。他引用文獻梳理了唐宋時期影堂的存在形式,找出了影堂畫像形式和墓主夫婦對坐像之間的聯系。此外,李教授探討了墓主像位置由西壁演變為北壁的原因,認為這是由觀念化的“靈座”方位意識向視覺經驗化的轉變。并提出唐宋時期墓葬不僅是埋藏場所,更是祭祀空間,榜題、墓志中的“永為供養”、“祭祀之所”、“時思堂”也印證了墓主像與墓葬建筑合為一體,具有祭祀的“紀念碑”象征意義。

李教授闡釋了墓主像與宋金墓葬的家宅化的問題。他出,宋金時期的墓主像不是對影堂的簡單模仿,墓葬的裝飾題材以家居生活為主,墓主夫婦像是其核心內容,并與四周的宴飲奏樂等畫面內容有著聯系和互動。并且,所有的墓主夫婦像都為年老夫婦,這些代表祖靈的肖像被賦予了更濃郁的“家”的象征含義,這種形象受到了興于北宋的肖像畫“家慶圖”的影響。此外,李教授還探討了出土墓主夫婦像裝飾的墓葬性質,它們都屬于夫妻合葬墓,并多為遷葬或改葬的夫妻或家庭合葬墓。以墓主夫婦對坐像為核心的墓葬裝飾反映出當時人們理想的和睦喜慶的家庭模式。

李教授還揭示了地下墓葬構造出的“家”與地上的“家”之間的關系。他將墓葬中自稱“慶堂”、“慶陰堂”的題記與地上“慶堂”建筑的文獻記載相比較,認為宋金時期常見的“先人積善、后人獲慶”的因果報應邏輯思想,受到了當時流行的相墓書有關墓葬禍福理論的影響。總結來說,墓主夫婦像反映的唐宋墓葬風氣變遷,體現了墓葬祖靈祭祀供養意義的加強,其與儒家的“孝”相結合,子孫后人通過示孝、祭祀和娛悅祖靈的方式獲得福報,反映了當時人們的祖靈信仰和正統的宗族、家庭思想觀念。

在互動討論環節,師生們就感興趣的問題向李清泉教授請教,李教授一一作出了詳盡的解答。方輝院長在總結中強調,李清泉教授的研究涉及美術史、美術考古等多個領域,觀察視角具體獨特,運用了唐宋墓葬諸多考古材料,對文獻的掌握更為精深鼓勵同學們努力學習李清泉教授的治學方法,今后的學習要培養閱讀積累文獻的習慣,嘗試闡釋墓葬形制變化背后的原因,在研究中做出創新和發現

李清泉,廣州美術學院教授,教育部高校藝術教育教學指導委員會委員。主要研究方向:漢唐宋遼美術考古、中國古代墓葬藝術。先后畢業于廣州美術學院與中山大學,2002年、2005年、2010年在芝加哥大學東亞研究中心、芝加哥大學亞洲藝術研究中心、哈佛大學燕京學社進行訪問研究。著有《宣化遼墓:墓葬藝術與遼代社會》、《永生之維:中國墓室壁畫史》、《濟南地區石窟、摩崖造像調查與初步研究》及學術論文數十篇,參與譯介芝加哥大學巫鴻教授著作多部。

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