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您現在的位置: 山東大學歷史文化學院  /  學術資訊  /  正文

張維華教授:我對于研究史學的一些看法

時間:2019-06-30 15:16:24  來源:   作者:張維華  編輯:常海峰  瀏覽量:

作學問,要費功力,要有克服困難的精神,但如何求得治學的門徑和方法,也很重要。最近幾年,接觸一些年青人,有的人也很努力,讀的書也不少,因為沒有入門,自己沒有治學的目的和方法,不知如何找出問題,如何處理問題,所以成就不大,這是值得注意的一個問題。

樹立長遠的目標,并且要有堅韌不拔的毅力,這是作學問應有的最基本的條件。有人認為考上大學、考上研究生就行了,就心滿意足了,此外不考慮如何作一個有貢獻于國家、人民,有貢獻于學術文化的讀書人。實在說,在目前的情形下,考上大學或考上研究生,確實很不容易,是很幸運的,但確不可認為以此就自滿了。須知考上大學距離走上作學問的途徑固然很遠,就是考上研究生或研究生畢業,也只能說極為初步的走上作學問的途徑,或者說極為初步的取得一些作學問的點滴經驗,離正式走上作學問的途徑還很遠。作學問這條路,很不容易。如果不想走作學問這條道路,那就用不著說了,如果想走這條路,非樹立雄心壯志、非有堅韌不拔的毅力不可。

就拿研究歷史這條道路來說,主要有兩個方面:一是在史料上下功夫,一是在史學上下功夫。所謂史學,就是在研究史料的過程中,融會貫通,認識到各個時代的歷史動態,潮流趨勢,從其中得出社會發展的規律。只在史料上下功夫,不求明了歷史的動態,就會把歷史變成無用的東西;只求明了歷史動態,而不在史料上下功夫,寫出的歷史就必然不是真實的歷史。要在歷史研究工作上取得成績,必須二者兼備。前人司馬遷作的《史記》,司馬光作的《資治通鑒》,就是很好的典范,值得我們學習。就以司馬光作《資治通鑒》來說,他費了三方面的功夫。先作《通鑒長編》,就是收集和排比史料;再作《通鑒考異》,就是對收集的史料加以檢查和鑒定,哪些是正確的,哪些是錯誤的,哪些是可用的,哪些是不可用的,哪些是有錯誤需要修正的。經過以上兩番功夫,最后寫成《資治通鑒》一書。

如何對待史料,在歷史研究中,是個大問題,史學工作者不能不注重史料。史料的范圍很廣,有史書,有各類的檔案文卷,有考古出土的文物,也包括著流行民間社會的各種傳說傳聞。這些史料,分散在各方,搜集起來很不容易,保存起來也很不容易。史料中最主要的是史書,是經過后人編定的史書。中國在這方面十分豐富。就以四庫全書的史部目錄論,其中所載的史書,就很可觀了。還有四庫全書沒有收入的,還有研究歷史不能缺少的經部、子部、集部類的書,那就更多了,真是浩如煙海。要掌握這些材料,就需要具備一定的目錄學、版本學知識。不具備這方面的知識,如何去找材料呢?有些歷史工作者,作歷史研究工作,就是從目錄學入手。可是,目前很多年青的歷史工作者很不注意這個問題。書本的史料,是現成的材料,尚如此困難,其他方面的史料,散在各方,收集起來,更加困難。

搜集史料不容易,鑒定和整理、運用史料更不容易。中國過去的大部分史學家,主要的功力用在這方面。中國的史學,是和經學并行的,也可以說史學是從經學中引伸出來的。經學是論道治世的。屬于經的書,在漢代已經很是混亂,有真偽的問題,有殘缺的問題,有字義不明的問題,有簡牘錯亂的問題,有篇章難分的問題。這些問題,混雜在一起,整理起來,十分困難。經過千百年經學家的努力,運用了各方面的知識,如目錄版本、音韻訓詁、名物學、文字學、輿地學等,才完成象今天流行的《十三經注疏》這部重要著作。

但是,不能說只是在史料上下功夫,就算是完成研究歷史的目的了。研究歷史的目的是了解人類社會發展的過程,借以探求人類社會未來發展的方向,這個目標大得很,困難得很,是應當更加注意的。有一個時期,歷史工作者只研究小問題,疏忽了大的問題。有人譏笑這是“學尚茍且”,是值得注意的。比如說,有人研究農民領袖李自成死在湖北的哪個村,或哪個山下;有的人研究馬可孛羅哪一天離開泉州,是哪一天上午或下午;有的研究某一個人的生卒年月,不惜多方尋求那個人的家譜、墓碑或墓志銘,認為這樣作才是專家。中國以前治史學的人很多,但真正走上治學道路的并不多。目前中外史學界有一個偏向,好研究小題目,忽視大問題,不求融會貫通的去對待歷史知識。這樣達到成名成家的目的,比較容易,卻是達不到研究歷史的真正目的。

(摘自《文史哲》1981年第1期,有刪節。)

 

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